Eukaryotes - Plant cell

TASK 1: Chloroplasts

NP: leaf of aquatic plant Vallisneria sp. or leaf of moss (Brachythecium rutabulum)

Prepare NP from leaf and observe plant cells with cell wall and round green chloroplasts.


Fig.: Plant cells with cell wall and chloroplasts.

TASK 2: Vacuoles

NP: berries of Wild Privet (Ligustrum vulgare)

Cut the berry and impress it on the slide glass, cover with cover glass and observe the violet coloured vacuoles and green chloroplasts. Then add a drop of NaOH (alkaline solution) to the one edge of glass and drop of acetic acid (acidic solution) to the second one. How does the color of vacuoles change according to different pH?


Fig.: Vacuoles and chloroplast in berries of Ligustrum vulgare

TASK 3: Crystalline inclusions of calcium oxalate

NP and PP: the outer peel (epidermis) of onion (Allium cepa) – "cibule" and stalks of Begonia and Pothos

Observe styloids (prismatic crystals) in outer peel of onion, druses in fluid from Begonia stalk and raphids (needle-like crystals) in fluid from Pothos stalk.


Fig.: Crystalline inclusions of calcium oxalate

TASK 4: Pollen grains

PP: the pollen grains - "pylová zrna, pyl"

Observe the various shapes of pollen grains from different plant species. Pollen grains vary in contrast; it is difficult to find them, and it is helpful to adjust the light to lower intensity.


Fig.: Pollen grains